The table of contents to articles on the fundamentals of consumer finance and investments — supplemented with illustrations, charts, and examples, and formatted for quick comprehension. Find more specific information fast by using the search engine at the top-left of every page (or near the bottom when viewing on a mobile, tablet, or other small-screen device).
Credit and Debt If you ain't got no money, ain't nobody calls you honey. — Bo Diddley Debt Collection Creditors have better memories than debtors. — Benjamin Franklin Debt and Taxes I've got all the money I'll ever need if I die by four o'clock this afternoon. — Henny Youngman Taxation of Canceled Debt - Taxes may be due on the canceled debt in a foreclosure or a short sale. This article explains what canceled debt is taxable, how to figure the tax, and how to possibly avoid it. Bankruptcy Money is better than poverty, if only for financial reasons. — Woody Allen Bankruptcy Fundamentals I have enough money to last me the rest of my life, unless I buy something. — Jackie Mason Pre-Bankruptcy Period Special Topics Though it has oft been said that money can't buy happiness, it can certainly prevent a lot of unhappiness. — wcs Chapter 7 Bankruptcy I'm living so far beyond my income that we may almost be said to be living apart. — e.e. cummings Chapter 13 Bankruptcy Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Insurance Insurance Fundamentals Risk - A tutorial about risk and insurance. Risks, Perils, And Hazards Handling Risk Risk Management Risk Management Techniques Insurance; Insurable Risks; Underwriting And Adverse Selection - A tutorial about the basics of insurance companies, underwriting and adverse selection, and what constitutes an insurable risk. Insurance Underwriting Credit-Based Insurance Scores - How and why personal credit scores affect insurance rates. Legal Liability and Negligence Law of Large Numbers - Using the Law of Large Numbers to determine underwriting risk and insurance premiums. Indemnity - How property insurance pays for losses. Insurable Interest - What constitutes an insurable interest, and when must it exist? Subrogation Utmost Good Faith—Representations, Concealments, And Warranties - Why honesty is the best policy in insurance. Insurance Contracts Standard Insurance Policies Insurance Deductibles - The different types of deductibles and how they reduce insurance premiums. Coinsurance - How coinsurance reduces health insurance premiums, and equalizes rates for property insurance. Multiple Insurance Coverage: Pro Rata Liability, Contribution Of Equal Shares, And Primary And Excess Insurance - What determines how much each insurance policy pays when multiple policies cover the same loss. Group Insurance Government Insurance History of Insurance Insurance Companies Types of Insurance Auto Insurance Homeowners Insurance Life Insurance Life Insurance Contracts Health Insurance Commercial Insurance Special Insurance Real Estate Buy land. They ain't making any more of the stuff. — Will Rogers Real Estate Fundamentals Real Estate, Real Property, And Land—Basic Definitions And Concepts Legal Descriptions Of Real Estate Real Estate Encumbrances: Liens, Deed Restrictions, Easements, and Encroachments Land-Use Controls: Comprehensive Plans, Zoning, and Property Restrictions Estates in Land: The Fee Simple Estate and the Life Estate Forms of Real Estate Ownership, including Concurrent Estates or Co-Ownership: Tenancy in Common, Joint Tenancy, Tenancy by the Entirety, and Community Property Types of Deeds: General and Special Warranty Deeds, Bargain and Sale Deeds, Quitclaim Deeds, Trust Deeds, and Court-Order Deeds Title Records Real Estate Title Insurance Real Estate Title Transfer Real Estate Agency Listing Agreements and Buyer Agency Agreements Real Estate Sales Contracts Real Estate Appraisal: Sales Comparison Approach, Cost Approach, Income Approach Real Estate Financing Consumer Protections for Higher-Priced Mortgages Real Estate Loan Types Escrow Due Diligence Real Estate Closing; Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Rentals Mortgages Real Estate Types Real Estate Investments Real Estate Taxation Special Topics in Real Estate Taxes The income tax has made liars out of more Americans than golf. — Will Rogers Income Taxation The tax code is complex because it is unfair. — wcs Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income (AGI), and Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) Tax Formula to Determine Taxable Income from Gross Income Tax Withholding Estimated Tax Payments Tax Penalty for Underpayment of Tax Wages, Salary, And Other Compensation Taxation of Fringe Benefits Fringe Benefits: Health And Accident Coverage, Flexible Spending Arrangements, Health Reimbursement Arrangements, Access Rules And COBRA Coverage Pensions and Annuities Taxation Other Income Additional Medicare Tax Kiddie Tax Taxation of Alimony, Separate Maintenance Payments, and Child Support Imputed Interest On Below-Market Loans Taxation Of Social Security Benefits and Tier 1 Equivalent Railroad Retirement Benefits Taxation of Gambling Income Home Sale Exclusion: Tax Savings on Capital Gain of a Principal Residence Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) for Individuals Taxation of Employee Stock Options Taxation Of Restricted Stock Compensation Taxation of Canceled Debt, Including Foreclosures and Short Sales Tax Consequences of Abandonments, Foreclosures, Repossessions, Voluntary Conveyances, and Bad Debts for the Lender Tax Attributes Tax Benefits for Military Personnel Foreign Income Foreign Earned Income Exclusion Foreign Tax Credit Expatriation Tax United States Taxation of Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations If Patrick Henry thought that taxation without representation was bad, he should see how bad it is with representation. — Old Farmer's Almanac Personal Deductions Tax Credits Educational Tax Benefits Other Tax Topics Retirement and Health Plans Blessed are the young, for they shall inherit the national debt. — Herbert Hoover Setting Up, Administering, and Terminating Retirement Plans Taxation of Investments Business Taxes Business Entities: Sole Proprietorships, Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies, S Corporations, and C Corporations Business Entities: Pros and Cons Qualified Joint Venture Election for Married Business Co-Owners Business Startup and Organizational Expenses Taxation of Business Sales Hobby Rules May Limit Claimable Losses from Sideline Businesses Accounting Methods: Cash, Accrual, and Hybrid Accounting Methods for Long-Term Contracts: Completed Contract Method, Percentage of Completion Method Self-Employment Tax Deductions for Repairs, Maintenance, and Capital Improvements for Businesses Home Office Deduction New Safe Harbor for Claiming the Home Office Deduction General Business Credit Actual Expense Method for Deducting Car and Truck Expenses Travel Expense Deductions Meals, Entertainment, and Gift Deductions Business Deductions for Rent and Lease Payments Deducting Nonbusiness and Business Bad Debts Net Operating Losses (NOLs) Domestic Production Activities Deduction Employees Depreciation and Other Cost Recovery Methods Real Estate Partnerships and Corporations Tax complexity is a kind of tax. — Sen. Max Baucus (D-Montana) and chairman of the Senate Finance Committee Gratuitous Transfer Taxes The only difference between death and taxes is that death doesn't get worse every time Congress meets. — Will Rogers Blessed are the young, for they shall inherit the national debt. — Herbert Hoover Did you ever notice that when you put the words â€œTheâ€ and â€œIRSâ€ together, it spells "THEIRSâ€? — Author Unknown Wills, Estates, and Trusts I have nothing, I owe a great deal; the rest I give to the poor. — the purported will of Rabelais Wills and Estates Intestate Distribution Limits to Testamentary Freedom Inheritance Appointing a Personal Guardian and Leaving Property for Minor Children: Property Guardianships, Uniform Transfer to Minors Act Custodianships, Child's Trust and Family Pot Trusts, 529 and Coverdell Accounts, and Handling Life Insurance Proceeds for Minors Gifts to Children: Advancements, Guardianships, Conservatorships, Custodianships, and Trusts Disclaimers Lapsed Gifts and Anti-Lapse Statutes Class Gifts Ademption, Avoidance Of Ademption, and Abatement Bars To Inheritance: Homicide, Abuse, Or Abandonment Wills: Execution and Probate Trusts Gift, Estate, and Trust Taxes Investment Fundamentals What's the use of happiness? It can't buy you money. — Henny Youngman Investment Math: Arithmetic and Geometric Mean, Total Return, Return Relative, Currency Conversions, and Measuring Risk Nominal and Real Interest Rates Present Value and Future Value of Money Present Value and Future Value of an Annuity Investment Returns: Real Rate Of Return and the Inflation Premium, Investment Risk and the Risk Premium, Holding Period Return (HPR), Internal Rate Of Return (IRR) Investment Risks and the Risk-Return Tradeoff Single Asset Risk: Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation Portfolio Risks and Returns; Covariance and the Coefficient of Correlation Capital Allocation Between A Risk-Free Asset And A Risky Asset Beta, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), and the Security Market Line (SML) Efficient Frontier of Portfolios Modern Portfolio Theory: the Efficient Frontier, Utility Scores, and Portfolio Betas The Single-Index Model For Security Returns Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT); Law Of One Price Value at Risk (VaR) Portfolio Performance: Comparing Portfolio Returns using the Sharpe Ratio, Treynor Ratio, and Jensen's Alpha Formula Investment Plans: Dollar-Cost Averaging, Constant-Dollar Plan, Constant-Ratio Plan, Variable-Ratio Plan Random Walk And Efficient Market Hypotheses Market Anomalies Behavioral Finance Cash Flow You can't buy love, but you can pay heavily for it. — Henny Youngman Banking and Financial Institutions If only God would give me some clear sign! Like making a large deposit in my name at a Swiss bank. — Woody Allen Central Banking Foreign Exchange Banking History A banker is a fellow who lends you his umbrella when the sun is shining, but wants it back the minute it begins to rain. — Mark Twain Topics Mutual Funds, Exchange-Traded Funds, Hedge Funds, and Limited Partnerships Money frees you from doing things you dislike. Since I dislike doing nearly everything, money is handy. — Groucho Marx Other Types of Funds Exchange-Traded Funds Limited Partnerships Bonds and Other Fixed Income Securities Bond Fundamentals Types of Bonds Money Market Instruments Government Securities Corporate Bonds Asset-Backed Securities Derivatives Special Topics Bond Resources Stocks Don't gamble; take all your savings and buy some good stock and hold it till it goes up, then sell it. If it don't go up, don't buy it. — Will Rogers Stock Fundamentals Primary and Secondary Stock Market Stock Valuation Financial Ratios Stock Indexes Specialized Topics Stock Resources Options Option Strategies Special Option Topics Futures Commodities Forex They say that money can't buy love, but it can greatly increase your prospects. — wcs Topics Technical Analysis If you can count your money, you don't have a billion dollars. — J. Paul Getty